decorative rug
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There are basically two kinds of "knots" used to make most pile-woven Oriental rugs: "Persian" and "Turkish" knots . Both Persian (Senneh) and Turkish (Ghiordes) knots are usually tied around pairs of warp strings 

The Persian or Senneh knot is asymmetric and may be open to either the right or left. These four Persian knots are open to the right.

Turkish or Ghiordes knots are symmetric. This example shows four Turkish knots.

knots persian
knots turkish
turkish_duble_knot persian_knot

A rug is a handicraft which consist of two parts: the skeleton of the rug, which is formed by vertical and horizontal threads called "warps" and "wefts" and the part which resembles a picture and is like velvet, which is called the "pile" of the rug, made by knotting different colors of thread. In order to form motifs, there are two knotting techniques

 1. Symmetrical knotting, double or Turkish knotting. Each knot is made on two warps. In this form of knotting, each end of the pile thread is wrapped all the way around the two warps, pulled down an cut.

2. Non-symmetrical or single (Persian) knotting. While one end of the thread is wrapped all the
wary around the warp, the other end goes just beside the other warp. Then both ends are pulled down and cut.

    The steps for weaving a carpet are written below.

  1. The weaving is started from the bottom of the loom. First the kilim part (flat woven part) is woven at the lower edge
2. The weaver then takes a piece of wool which corresponds with the pattern and forms a knot on two warps.

  3. Then she cuts the surplus wool with a knife.

  4. After one row of knotting is completed, she then passes a weft thread in between the front and back warps. The weft threads are used to strengthen the weaves of the carpet.

  5. Then she will take the " kirkit" (a comb like tool) and vigorously beat down the row of knots and weft, in order to obtain the desired tightness and to make the knots and weft compact.

  6. Following this step, with a pair of adjustable scissors she cuts the surplus colored threads to obtain a uniform level of pile thickness.

  7. This process is continued until the carpet is complete.


How do you know when to count one bump on the back of the rug as one knot?

It's easy -- look carefully at the individual areas of color across the width of the back of the rug. If you only see colored elements in pairs, you need to count each pair as one knot. If you see lots of single colored elements, the rug has offset warps and each element should be counted as one knot. Many country rugs from Turkey, Afghanistan, and Iran show both knot elements on the back of the rug, as do Bokharas from Pakistan. Most rugs from India and China have strongly offset warps, and so show only one knot element on the back of the rug. Often the warps of the rug lie on the same plane. If the warps of the rug lie on the same plane, each knot (whether Turkish or Persian) will show on the back of the rug as two tiny squares of the same color next to each other across the width of the rug.



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