decorative rug
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GLOSSARY of ORIENTAL RUG TERMS

  • Abrash: Variation and striation of colors throughout the rug.
  • Add Fringes: Weave new fringes onto rug.
  • Allover Design: Continuous design throughout rug
  • Aniline Dye: A synthetic dye from coal tar. In the early 1900's it was banned in Persia.
  • Antique Finish: A modern washing procedure that tones or antiques the rug.
  • Art Silk: Artificial silk, normally made with mercerized cotton.
  • Aubusson: French design normally with a medallion and pastel colors.
  • Border: A design that surrounds the field in an Oriental rug
  • Boteh: Paisley like design.
  • Cartoon: Map of design and colors necessary to weave a rug.
  • Carved Nap/Pile: A process of carving around a design or symbol to enhance the look of the rug. Commonly done in some Chinese and Tibet rugs.
  • Cartouche: A design that surrounds a woven signature, date or inscription in a rug.
  • Caucasian: Rugs were mainly woven in Azerbaijan, which is part of the Caucasus region.
  • Chemical Dyes: Modern synthetic dyes used in rugs woven after 1935.
  • Chrome Dyed: Modern synthetic dyes.
  • Cloth Backed Rug: Normally on the back of an Indian or Chinese tufted rug.
  • Cochineal: Deep red dye obtained from the dried bodies of a type of insect.
  • Colorfast: If a rug has colorfast dyes, the colors are steadfast and will not run when washed.
  • Combing: Process for preparing wool's in the same direction, before they are spun.
  • Dozar: A Persian name used to describe approximately a 4.6 x 6.6 size carpet.
  • Dry rot: After many years the rug becomes dry and brittle, or liquids or moisture on a rug for an extended time can cause the rug to become dry rot.
  • Embossed: A process of carving around a design or symbol to enhance the look of the rug. Commonly done in some Chinese and Tibet rugs.
  • Field: The part of the rug lying between the border.
  • Flat-Weave: Describes a rug that has a flat pile which includes Dhurrie, Kilim and Soumak.
  • Foundation: The warp and weft is the basis/foundation of a rug.
  • Fringe: Extension of the warp threads on two opposite sides of a rug.
  • Garden Design: Panel designs throughout the field woven with floral motifs, particularly found in a Persian Bahktiari.
  • Gul: The small repeating almost looking elephant foot design found in Bohkara rugs
  • Hatchli: A design found in Turkemon rugs.
  • Herati: A fish pattern repeating throughout the field of a rug.
  • Indigo: Different blue shaded dyes obtained from the leaves of the indigo plant.
  • Jufti: A false knotting technique that simplifies the knot for the weaver.
  • Kellegi: A Persian word for a wide runner, for example 6 x 13
  • Kilim: A flat rug with no pile.
  • Knot: A knot is formed when wool, cotton or silk yarn is looped around the warp threads. There are different procedures for knotting and each knot type has a name, for example there is a Turkish/Ghiordes knot & a Persian/Sennah knot.
  • Knots per square inch: Number of knots per square inch rates the knot quality.
  • Kork Wool: The very finest quality wool obtained from the shoulder and flanks of shearling lambs.
  • Loom: Normally a wood structure that the carpet is woven on.
  • Madder: A powder extracted from the root of a Rubia plant used to make red dye.
  • Medallion: Center design of a rug.
  • Nap: Face of the rug where the knot ends are cut, normally made of wool or silk.
  • Natural Dyes: See vegetable dyes.
  • Overcast sides: Technique of over-rounding wool on the non-fringe sides of a rug.
  • Oxidizes: With excess sunlight exposure rug colors can change to a brown or black color.
  • Painted Rugs: A process of actually painting the rug to improve its look. Also if you touch-up worn areas with markers.
  • Panel Design: See Garden Design.
  • Patina: The surface appearance of a rug usually mellows with age or use.
  • Pile: See Nap.
  • Programmed Rugs: Weave the same design in different sizes.
  • Pushti: Persian term for a scatter rug, normally 2 x 3.
  • Re-fringe: Repair fringe of rug using the selvedge or part of the rug.
  • Saffron: Natural dye use to obtain a yellow color.
  • Saph: Several Mihrabs, which indicate the direction of Mecca, are arranged side by side on a rug used for prayer.
  • Savonnerie: French design normally in a thick pile with pastel colors.
  • Sculptured rug: See Embossed.
  • Selvedge: The area between the edge of a rug and the fringe. The selvedge is the same material used to form the warp and weft. A design can be added to the selvedge to enhance the look of a rug.
  • Senneh Knot: Persian knot
  • Siding: Edging on non-fringed sides of a rug.
  • Soumak: A flat-piled rug using a special weaving technique known as weft wrapping.
  • Vegetable dyes: Dyes derived from insects or from the earth, which includes madder root, indigo, milkweed, pomegranate, osage, cutch and cochineal.
  • Warp: Beginning part of a rug where wool, cotton or silk strands are attached to a Loom vertically, following the length of a rug.
  • Weft: Wool, cotton or silk strands inserted horizontally over and under the warp forming the foundation of the rug.
Wool Foundation: A rug is started with a wool warp and weft.

 

 

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